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By Frank Christianson

In the course of the nineteenth century the U.S. and Britain got here to proportion an financial profile remarkable of their respective histories. This publication means that this early excessive capitalism got here to function the floor for a brand new form of cosmopolitanism within the age of literary realism, and argues for the need of a transnational research established upon financial relationships of which individuals on either side of the Atlantic have been more and more awake. The nexus of this exploration of economics, aesthetics and ethical philosophy is philanthropy. Pushing past reductive debates over the benevolent or mercenary characteristics of commercial period philanthropy, the next questions are addressed: what shape and serve as does philanthropy imagine in British and American fiction respectively? What are the rhetorical parts of a discourse of philanthropy and within which cultural domain names did it function? How used to be philanthropy practiced and represented in a interval marked via self-interest and rational calculation? the writer explores the connection among philanthropy and literary realism in novels by way of Charles Dickens, Nathaniel Hawthorne, George Eliot, and William Dean Howells, and examines how every one used the determine of philanthropy either to redefine the emotions that trained social identification and to refashion their very own aesthetic practices.

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Extra resources for Philanthropy in British and American Fiction: Dickens, Hawthorne, Eliot and Howells (Edinburgh Studies in Transatlantic Literatures)

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Boorstin for their tendency to find ‘accord on the values of liberal capitalism, political democracy, and the marketplace’ (p. 4). This approach was a reaction to an early-twentiethcentury tradition of conflict or progressive history exemplified by the work of Charles Beard which viewed capitalism and democracy as antithetical. For an extended examination of the relationship between these two historiographic traditions see Noble, The End of American History. George W. Bush has promoted plans to increase charitable activity through his faith-based initiative and the Citizen Service Act.

The topos of philanthropy became a uniquely suitable site for the examination of midVictorian moral psychology and the models of social relation which were its outgrowth. The logic of mid-Victorian philanthropy parallels that of literary realism in its exploration of the capacities and limits of the sympathetic experience, its quest for epistemological impartiality, and its reliance on social taxonomies as a primary means of organising its subjects. The Origins of Modern Philanthropy The central term in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century theories of human sociality is sympathy.

Qxd 18/10/07 9:34 am Introduction 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. Page 25 Phil's G4 Phil's G4:Users:phil:Public [ 25 times, as well as to measure the impact (or lack thereof) that identity determinants have had on the differentiation of one domain of knowledge from another’ (Making a Social Body, p. 3). A number of historical studies have shown how institutional philanthropy evolved in response to the emergence of more scientific methods of gathering information about social constituencies. The Charity Organisation Societies which appeared in the 1860s and 1870s represented an attempt to systematise charitable giving and were the forerunners of the modern social work system.

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